Kazakh society between 17th and 18th centuries
This period was almost the hardest time in the history of Kazakh nation and was reflected in the common mind as a period of great calamities and tortures connected with the invasion of Kazakh steppes by the Jungars (Jungars, Kakmyks, Oyrats, Elutes are different names for the West-Mongolian tribes of the Choros, Khoshout, Torgout and Der-Bet).
In 1710 in the Kara Kum desert representatives of the three Kazakh Juzes got together to review the main hot issue - fighting the Jungar invaders.
Now we know the names of the glorious wizards, the true sons of the Kazakh people - Tole bi, Kazybek bi and Aiteke bi. They managed to deliver and induce a great truth to the community: one who loses unity with the rest when standing on a turning point of history also loses his life. The three great biys (elders chosen by their clan members to perform as judges for their wisdom) managed to bring to reason the obstinate nobility of the three Juzes and consolidate the Kazakh people.
After consolidation the people regained their spirits and believed in their power. For the entire summer period the troops of the three Juzes armed themselves had joint military exercises and in Autumn near the Bulanty river they delivered a smashing blow to Jungars. This victory inspired the Kazakhs and contributed to further development of their unity.
In the rows of Kazakh troops there were also fighting fearless Kirghiz and Uzbek warriors armed with spears. The greatest victory of our people over the Jungar hordes was connected with the famous Anyrakai battle in the valley of the Balkhash lake in 1729. The howl, cry of the utterly defeated Oyorts was heard by the Kazakhsta of the entire steppe region, there fore the battle in that valley was called the Anyrakai battle - or the battle in the valley of the enemy's panic. The grounds for the victory in this battle were predetermined by our wise ancestors who managed to unite the nation. Unfortunately, the joy of this victory was not very long.
On May 14, 1993 Kazakhstan celebrated 330th anniversary of a most prominent figure in the history of Kazakh people - Tole bi, a legendary advisor to Tauke-khan, a person who was the first to seriously think about the problem of a nation that is broken into tribes, clans, Juzes. He was the first ideologist propagating the ideas of Kazakh state organization. He was also an unsurpassed speaker, enlightener, philosopher, political figure, author of numerous parables in verse and a co-author of the first Kazakh code of laws called Jety Jargy.
Tole bi Alibek-uly (1663-1756) was born the Shu area, jailow of Jaisan of the modern Jambyl region.
From the age of 15 he participated in resolving the most difficult issues, was known for his sense of fairness, oratorical skills, clear logic of reasoning when resolving disputes. He also performed as a teacher who brought up a number of batyrs and khans headed by Abylay-khan who organized a victorious campaign of Kazakhs against the Jungars. On behalf of the Senior Juz Tole bi participated in developing the Jety Jargy code of common laws and played a major part in compiling this steppe constitution.
Kaz Dauysty Kazybek bi (1665-1765) is one of the famous biys in the history. He was born on the banks of the Syrdaria river. He spent his youth in the areas of Karatau and Ulytau. According to Kazakh chronicles, he stemmed from the clan of argyn (or karakesek) of the Middle Juz. He served under the patronage of the khans Tauke, Semeke, Abulmambet, Abylai. He was one of the organizers of the liberation fight against the Jungars. In 40th he contributed much to liberation of the captured khan Abylai.
The ashes of Kazybek bi were buried in the mausoleum of Ahmed Yassevi in the town of Turkestan. Another prominent figure was Aiteke bi or Aiteke Baibekuly (1681-1737). He was an outstanding speaker and biy from the Junior Juz. So far his birthplace is not established exactly. Some legends tell that he was born on the Keles river near Tashkent. Another version tells that Ayteke was born somewhere in-between the towns of Bukhara and Samarkand. He was buried on the tract of Seitkul in the Nurat mountains, Uzbekistan.
These three famous personalities were destined to be the first to pondered over the idea of joining the scattered Kazakhs together.
In the history of Kazakh law only two old historical legislative documents are known: Kasym Khannyn Kaska Zholy (The bright way of Kasym-khan) that did not reach our days and Jety Jargy (The seven Regulations) of the Tauke-khan.
Jety Jargy included regulations caused by the needs of the military, political and social life of the Kazakh society in XVIII century. An important matter of this document that determined the nature of this document was its author's desire to adjust the norms of the common law to the new requirements of the feudalized Kazakh community by legalizing those norms which went in line with the interests of the nobility class, by replacing the older norms with more beneficial new ones. Since the document covers seven spheres of the society activities, the document was named as The Seven Regulations of Tauke-khan, though there is another hypothetical opinion on this matter.
Thus, for instance, there is a supposition that the name Jety Jargy (The Seven Regulations) is due to the number of its authors which also equals to seven.
Wisdom and shrewdness of the honored three great ancestors were displayed at that hard time. They clearly foresaw the future of their nation, were first to indicate the correct way of preserving the descendants and the home land, showed quite a paragon of a political pragmatism to follow.